human head transplant healthy possible

Head Transplant In The Works: 5 Reasons Why This “Crazy” Scientist Might Succeed

The date has been set for 2017. There is a first volunteer. And if things go as Dr. Sergio Canavero – a neuroscientist – plans, we will have the first successful human head transplant in history. Here are 5 reasons why he might actually succeed.

1. The successes of Dr. Robert White

There are a lot of similarities between monkeys and humans. Biologically, the differences are minimal. And so if a neurosurgeon was able to transplant a monkey’s head onto another, chances are that small improvements in the technology and methodology could make a successful human head transplant possible.

Dr. Robert White was able to successfully transplant a monkey’s head. He did this in 1970, with all the bad technology that was in place at the time. And what is more interesting was the fact that the monkey lived. It was able to smell, taste, hear and see. Those were successes!

Well, the monkey was paralyzed. And it only survived for 9 days because of immune system complications. But keep in mind that this was 1970. The technology that we have right now is robust enough to deal with the challenges of spinal fusion. And as for the immune system complications, Dr. Canavero and his group of experts believe that they have solutions: hypothermia, an ultra sharp surgical blade, and a 3-4 week coma. And also a little bit of electrical stimulation through implanted electrodes with the aim of encouraging proper fusion

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2. Dr. Xiaoping And 1000 Mice

In medicine, lab testing usually starts with mice. They are a staple in most medical labs because of the biological resemblance with humans. They are a starting piece and successful testing with mice is usually a good sign.

That’s why the successes of Dr. Xiaoping is good news for Dr. Canavero and his head transplant ambitions. According to Medical News Today, Dr. Xiaoping has up to date conducted over 1000 head transplants on mice. 1000 is a huge number. A lot of heads too. And a lot of good news for Dr. Canavero since Dr. Xiaoping is part of a number of talented surgeons that will be helping him crystallize his ambitions into reality.

3. The potential benefits of human head transplant

The thing about possibilities what human beings are capable of doing to reach them is surprising.

It is easy to understand the benefits of such a procedure.

For the experts, the 150 or so surgeons who plan to participate, there is the prestige that comes from successfully doing such a procedure. Of being at the forefront. Of being remembered and of going down the history books as one of the greatest surgeons. It is sexy and attractive.

Investors also buy into the same dream. And it is no surprise that the two countries that are willing to fund the head transplant experiment are China and Russia – arms race, anyone?

And then there are the practical potential benefits of the problem. Take for example Spiridonov. He is suffering from spinal muscular atrophy. He can’t control his muscles. And with every waking breath, he knows that he is living on borrowed time. A head transplant could significantly change his life. And many more –that is if it is successful.

The practical benefits are attractive. The glory is attractive. All this translates to support that might prove instrumental in making a head transplant successful.

4. The Chinese Factor In The Human Transplant Game

You can imagine the furor that such a procedure would cause in America. And it won’t be just protests from people who are concerned about the ethics of conducting such a procedure – it’s literally beheading!

But thanks to China, these are obstacles that the good surgeon doesn’t have to deal with. China and Dr. Canavero have already inked a contract that will make the head transplant possible sometime in 2017.

The Chinese factor was such great news  for the doctor that he had to disappoint Valeri Spiridonov – the Russian who was determined to be the first person to undergo a head transplant.

Sorry to the Russian. It turns out that a Chinese national will be first. This is all good news for Dr. Canavero for he gets two test subjects with possibly “I guess the second time’s a charm” balancing on his lips.

5. Support from leading medical professionals

When people in your field support your grand ambitions, you tend to seem less crazy. The “nuts” word used to describe you slowly transforms into “ambitious” or “brilliant”. And the more support you get, the more is likely to come your way. Investors too, which is very important given the level of expertise and money, $11 million per operation, needed.

Dr. Michael Sarr of Mayo Clinic, the chief editor of Surgery, the journal, has lent his support. Others too. And sure, the more like support he gets, the more resources he will receive, and the more support he will get – which all equals to increased odds of success.

As the doctor says: “The world is moving, the critics are dwindling. Of course, there will always be critics. Science teaches us that when you propose something groundbreaking, you must be confronted by criticism. If no critics really step forward, you are saying nothing special.”

But again, head transplant?! I shudder at the thought of some people getting their hands on that technology – think cartel and terrorists trying to beat facial recognition software.

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cyst burst

4 Things To Know About Ovarian Cyst Rupture And Pain

Pain is one of the most common symptoms of ovarian cysts. But when the pain becomes extreme all of a sudden, chances are that you are not just experiencing a normal cyst symptom. Chances are that the cyst in your ovary has ruptured.

Extreme pain, which can be intermittent or continuous, is one of the most common and reliable symptoms of an ovarian cyst rupture. And cyst ruptures are some of the most common causes of abdominal pain in women.

Ruptured ovarian cyst pain and pregnancy

This pain can be experienced by a woman who is pregnant – given that cysts can rupture during pregnancy. As a result, it can sometimes be a source of confusion especially when it happens during the early weeks of pregnancy. Why? Because the symptoms of an ovarian cyst rupture usually mimic those of an ectopic pregnancy.

Both ectopic pregnancies and cyst bursts usually cause extreme pain. They are also in the habit of causing vaginal bleeding. Symptoms wise, it is usually hard to tell the difference between the two. This is however something that a simple ultrasound sound test can help solve.

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Why does ovarian cyst rupture cause pain.

Radiopaedia has an answer. It lists 3 possible reasons why the rupturing of an ovarian cyst can cause the excruciating pain that they are known for. Here they are:

  1. torquing of the ovarian pedicle
  2. stretching of the ovarian capsule
  3. peritoneal irritation caused by an ovarian cyst rupture leak causes

Other symptoms that may accompany cyst-burst-induced pain

The extreme pain that one feels may be accompanied by symptoms like:

1.Nausea and vomiting

2.Weakness, and

3.Abnormal vaginal bleeding

Treatment of ruptured ovarian cyst pain

Cyst ruptures that do not develop complications are easy to treat. For these, all a doctor has to do is put the woman under observation  – basically watching out for any signs of complications such as excessive bleeding and infections.

However, if the rupturing of  a cyst is accompanied by extreme pain, it may be necessary for the doctor to prescribe pain medication – even in cases where the cyst rupture incident is complications-free.


ovarian cyst rupture treatment

10 Symptoms Of Ovarian Cyst Rupture Every Woman Needs To Know

A cyst burst. It scares most women. But the thing is, it is more common than most women assume. And the fact is that while there are times when ruptured ovarian cysts have led to symptoms as serious as circulatory collapse, most women survive cyst ruptures. And in fact, in most cases, there is usually no need of serious medical intervention.

There are cases where ovarian cyst ruptures show none of the symptoms of ovarian cysts — except for the obligatory vaginal discharge that happens when the contents of the cyst are released into the female reproductive system.

1. Extreme abdominal pain, the most common ovarian cyst rupture symptom

However, most cyst burst cases usually come with abdominal pain. This pain is usually sharp and sudden. And in some women, it usually disappears after the first wave. In others, the pain is intermittent, and in others, it tends to be continuous pain.  This pain caused by cysts can sometimes be felt in the lower back region, and in some cases, can also radiate to the thigh region.

The pain caused by ovarian cysts is sometimes so extreme that doctors, in addition to the common let’s-see-what-happens approach to ovarian cyst rupture management, need to prescribe pain medication, just to make life a little bit more bearable.

2. Nausea and vomiting

Nausea and vomiting are common ovarian cyst symptoms. But not all women experience them as symptoms. And so a sudden bout of nausea accompanied by episodes of vomiting can be a good indication of an ovarian cyst rupture. This is so especially if these symptoms are accompanied by extreme abdominal pain.

3. Vaginal bleeding / abnormal vaginal discharge

Vaginal bleeding is another common sign that a woman has a ruptured cyst.

Why do cyst bursts cause a vaginal discharge?

Well, it’s because of the fact that when an ovarian cyst ruptures, it releases its contents. These contents have to find a way out. And as it happens, there is usually only one way out of the female reproductive system: the vagina.

But not all ruptured ovarian cyst discharges are created equal. They usually vary in the amount of vaginal bleeding they cause and how they appear. This is so  mainly because different types of cysts usually contain different types of materials. Some contain chocolate-like blood, others mainly contain sebaceous material and so on. So when they rupture, the discharge is bound to be different in terms of appearance.

As for the amount of vaginal discharge that the cyst causes, that will depend on the size of the cyst. Whether or not the cyst causes excessive internal bleeding, when it tears, is something that can also determine the amount of vaginal discharge that will take place after an ovarian cyst bursts.

The rest of ruptured ovarian cyst symptoms

Nathan Webb M.D. , in an article written for Medscape, lists a number of ovarian cyst rupture symptoms. Most of these are ovarian cyst rupture symptoms that set in when complications develop. They include:

4. Circulatory collapse – from the excessive bleeding that a cyst burst can cause

5. Syncope

6. Weakness – which usually accompanies extreme abdominal pain. This symptom can also be caused by the excessive bleeding that a ruptured ovarian cyst triggers.

7. Shoulder tenderness

8. Septic shock

9. Hemorrhagic shock

10. And in very rare cases, death – that is according to Medscape

Given the seriousness of the these cyst burst symptoms, making sure that you get immediate help is advisable ( see reasons for ovarian cyst rupture treatment). You can take advantage of natural remedies. Over-the-counter medication can come in handy in helping you to relieve pain. And as for extreme cases, surgery will be necessary.

ruptured ovarian cysts

Ovarian Cyst Rupture During Pregnancy – 5 Things You Should Know

Can a woman have ovarian cysts during pregnancy? Can they rupture when she is pregnant? And what are the risks of having a ruptured cyst when expecting a baby? These are questions that most women ask. And they are questions that we are going to deal with in this article.

Can a woman have cysts in her ovaries when pregnant?

The first step in understanding what is possible and what is not, so far as ovarian cysts and pregnancy is concerned, lies in understanding that there are two types of cysts: functional ovarian cysts and ovarian tumors.

Functional ovarian cysts are those that develop when something goes wrong during ovulation. Their development and growth is tied to the ovulation process and so without ovulation, new cysts cannot form. This is one of the main reasons why birth control pills sometimes work as a treatment of ovarian cysts.

During pregnancy, the menstrual cycle stops. The release of hormones associated with the menstrual cycle, and the accompanying bleeding, usually comes at a standstill. And since the formation of functional cysts usually depends on the menstrual cycle, these cysts don’t usually form when a woman is pregnant.

However, this does not mean that a pregnant woman cannot have functional cysts. This is because it is possible for ovarian cysts to form before a woman gets pregnant. And since pregnancy is no ovarian cyst miracle cure, the cyst will still be in existence during and possibly after the pregnancy.

As for nonfunctional cysts, ovarian tumors, they develop independent of the menstrual cycle. They can therefore form before a pregnancy, during a pregnancy and after.

Can ovarian cysts rupture during pregnancy?

Given that a pregnant woman can have cysts in her ovaries, there is nothing to prevent the cysts from rupturing. In fact, it is possible that the presence of a baby can increase the chances of a cyst burst simply because of the additional space that the developing fetus takes and the resulting pressure on adjacent organs and even the cyst. So, yes, ovarian cysts can rupture during pregnancy.

Can ovarian cysts shrink and disappear during pregnancy?

Yes, they can.

This is why most doctors take the wait-and-see approach when it comes to treating cysts discovered during pregnancy. It is only when the cyst continues to grow in size, and when it starts to cause severe symptoms, and possibly affect the baby, that doctors opt for drastic solutions such as surgery. But surgery is rarely necessary. You need not panic since most cysts usually shrink and disappear on their own.

The relationship between an ovarian cyst rupture and an ectopic pregnancy

A cyst burst is usually accompanied by extreme abdominal pains. So is an ectopic pregnancy. It is also usually followed by a vaginal discharge. An ectopic pregnancy too. It is for these reasons that it is easy to confuse the two. This is a confusion that a simple ultra sound is capable of clearing.

Treatment of ruptured ovarian cysts when pregnant

While symptoms of a ruptured cyst are a clear indication of the need for immediate medical attention, the rupturing of a cyst on ovary isn’t always an indication of doom. In most cases, all that a doctor has to do is to monitor your progress and to look out for any complications of an ovarian cyst rupture, like infections. It is only when there are risks of complications that doctors usually resort to surgical removal of the cysts.

ovarian cyst rupture causes

Why Do Ovarian Cysts Rupture?

A cyst burst usually comes with a host of nasty symptoms. There is the excruciating pain, the vaginal discharge, the looming possibility of an infection and the risk of the bleeding getting out of control. There are even cases where an innocent ovarian cyst rupture has led to death.

Question is: why do ovarian cysts rupture? What causes a cyst burst? What triggers it? And does understanding it hold the key of reducing the chances of ending up with a ruptured ovarian cyst?

The key to understanding an ovarian cyst rupture lies in knowing what they really are. By definition, an ovarian cyst is a fluid filled sac that develops in or on the ovaries.

Fluid filled sac is what you should keep in mind. Think of it as a balloon filled with water. Why would such a balloon burst? If you can come up with any educated guesses as to why that might happen, you most likely have answered the question: why do ovarian cysts rupture.

Too much fluid in the cyst

What holds the contents of a cyst together is a thin membrane. An ovarian cyst usually grows when more and more fluid fills this membrane. Unfortunately, this does not always result in the membrane growing. And so, the more the cyst fills up with fluid, the more the pressure that the membrane is under. Eventually the resulting pressure just becomes too much to handle and the membrane tears up, releasing the fluid. And hence a full-blown ovarian cyst rupture.

Physical trauma and ruptured cysts

Most ruptured ovarian cyst cases usually begin when a woman is either having sexual intercourse, exercising or engaging in any strenuous sexual activity. This is because of the effect that these activities usually have on the cyst.

Strenuous activity, like sexual intercourse, usually applies pressure on the abdominal region. It usually causes the muscles to press against the cyst. And just like a balloon filled with water, when the pressure is too much, it bursts.

However, this effect isn’t limited to activities that a woman participates in. Any type of physical trauma, such as falling or getting hit in the abdominal region, can trigger a cyst burst.

Cysts that rupture for no reason at all

There are types when an ovarian cyst ruptures in spite of there being no physical trauma and no accumulation of fluid (growth of the cyst). It just happens. It may be because of a hormonal imbalance, genetics or who knows what. There are times when cysts, even ones which are not large cysts, just rupture for seemingly no logical reason.

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